Language: Fulhu

Spoken by atihresi tahori.

Pronunciation

Vowels

A = ah [caught]
E = ey [hay]
I = ee [beet]
O = oh [boat]
U = oo [loot]
Y = eye [white]

EH = eh [get]
IH = ih [bit]
UH = uh [guts]

AH is the same as A; OH is the same as A. Neither AH nor OH should be used.

Combinations of hard vowels (e.g. EU in [keusune]) are pronounced separately. Kay-oo-soo-nay. Unlike Uhjayi, combined vowels are not written with a hyphen between them, but they are still pronounced distinctly.

Consonants

Consonants used in Fulhu include D, F (soft, somewhat like SH), G (hard, as in [guts]), H, J (hard, as in [judge]), K, L, M, N, R, S, T, V (soft, somewhat like FF), Y, Z.

B, P, and W are not used because they require lips to be spoken; C, Q, and X are not used because they are copies of the K or Z sounds.

In translation to the English alphabet, H is used as a softening modifier for many consonants. (See Script for more details.)

CH = tch [chat]
DH = th [then]
JH = jh [deluge]
KH = kh - soft hacked sound, close to a growl
RH = rrll - soft half-purred R, not rolled, halfway between L and R
SH = ssh [bull's shit]
TH = th [thing]

Some of the consonants are spectrum groups. For example, R - RH - L. RH is a sound midway between R and L. Similarly, V - F - SH - JH comprise a spectrum.

Syntax

Fulhu is extremely similar to Uhjayi in many ways; they developed in the same geographical areas and have a parallel evolution.

Root word has several very brief modifiers. Modifiers come at the end of the word, like root'modifier. All modifiers are 1-3 letters.

verb (to _) = word'_ - multiple mods
noun (manifestation of _) = word'_ - one mod
descriptor (adj/adv - _esque/_ly) = _'word - one mod
active person (_er) = _'word - one mod
passive person (_ee) = word'_ - one mod
diluted (ish) = word'_ - one mod
enhanced (very) = word'_ - one mod
pluralization (s) = _'word - multiple mods
pronoun (subject) = _'word (comes before any other modifier) - multiple mods
pronoun (possessive) = word'_ - multiple mods
anti/un (opposite/negation) = _'word - one mod

Verb has extras to indicate tense and singular/plural of pronoun. Pronoun'root'verbtense. The pronoun indicates plurality, 1st/2nd/3rd person, and gender if necessary - all pronoun mods are two letters. The root is the root. The verb tense modifies the verb indicator, so if the verb indicator is 'u, that would be the infinitive. Present tense might be 'ru and past tense might be 'ku, etc etc. It winds up quite short, like tir'shal'ku for "they have gone" or sommat. Subjects that aren't pronouns are their own words in front of the root'verbtense phrase, like Sachi shal'ku.

Pronouns: I (singular genderless), you (singular genderless), it (singular genderless), we (plural genderless), y'all (plural genderless), they (plural genderless). All of those plus gender=male, gender=female, gender=other. (Pronoun = consonant, four genders [none, male, female, other] = vowel three genders [male, female, other] = vowel? No mention of gender would just leave out the vowel entirely. Or the pronoun could be a CV/VC pair, with the gender being an added vowel…) Same grid for possessives and subjects both; in fact, probably same words, just different placement around the root.

Prepositions: Same pronoun words for objects, as well, but objects aren't attached to the verb; instead, they're modified with preposition'pronoun. Tir'shal'ku fen'tir for "they have gone from them" or sommat. Both spatial and abstract prepositions modify their subjects like this.

Verb tenses: present (_s, is _ing), past (_ed, had _, was _ing), future (will _, will be _ing), past imperfect (was _ing and still is _ing), future imperfect (is _ing and will continue _ing), and present continuous (was _ing, is _ing, and will continue _ing). Extra three modifiers: can/could, may/might, should/ought - they come right before the verb (and after the pronoun if there is one). Tir'f'shal'ku for "they should have gone" or sommat.

Articles: No "a" or "the". Pluralization is a modifier, as is nounification. Emphasis words "this particular _" do exist, modifiable by gender (same vowels as in pronouns?) and pluralizations. Plural'emphasis'gender. Ha'ko'a chulf for "many particular female deer" or sommat. (Note: Otherwise, plural and gender can modify the subject itself, rather than an emphasis word.)

Concrete nouns: As in "deer" and "rocks" and such. They don't have the word'noun modifier, as they are considered names. Abstracts like thinking/thought would have the word'noun modifier, as a thought is a manifestation of thinking.

Conjunctions: Are listed in subjective order of importance/relevance. They're bridged by conjunction words that remain separate from the list items. Anti'conjunction is "or", while the conjunction word alone is "and". More advanced conjunctions like "however" and whatnot are considered separate from the list-conjunctions.

Questions: I really like Uhjayi's method here. Uncertainty indicator at the beginning of the sentence, no rearranging of subject-verb order, positive/negative modifiers for the uncertainty indicator. Query words (which, when, where, etc) take the place of where otherwise concrete information would go inside the phrase.

Sentence Structure: SVO. S-V-DO-IO.

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