Language: Uhjayi Syntax 1.0

Introduction - finished

Uhjayi is an artificial language built from a pseudo-organic root system of 205 core concepts and modifiers. It has a very smooth sound when spoken, but tonal inflection and body language are heavily used to convey urgency, emotion, and importance of what's being said. Written Uhjayi has 227 phonetic symbols and uses spacing between symbols to express importance. As a language of the inlanlu tahori, Uhjayi places heavy emphasis on descriptors and the web of relationships that link the subject to the speaker, the spoken-to, the spoken-about, and the world in general. It is widely considered the common tongue of Alasa Ka; many non-inlanlu are fluent in speaking it, and many more have at least listening comprehension of it.

Modifiers: How Words And Phrases Are Built

Due to the natural flow of spoken language and the deliberately varied spacing of written Uhjayi, complex concepts that require multiple roots, words, and/or modifiers to be expressed may or may not be considered one whole word. For example, the less-common name for kahashi tahori is sasemiyukashuh [death moves within water]; it can be written as an entire word, as seen previously, or as an actual phrase: sase miyu kashuh. When spoken or written in Uhjayi, the spacing is irrelevant to meaning; when written in English, the spacing helps convey whether the phrase is meant as a term or as a more general sentence.

Two of the most important modifiers in Uhjayi are -ri and -ka. Ri transforms a concept into an action, making the word into a verb, and ka is best translated as [manifestation of], creating a noun out of an abstract concept. They attach to the rear of whatever word or root they're transforming: du [lead] becomes duri [leads], saja [communicate] becomes sajaka [communication]. In more complex words, such as sarusajakarari [to sing], ka and ri are both found. Because sarusajakarari ends in ri, it is a verb, but you can see sajaka [communication] within the larger word. Ka attaches to the rear of the root saja that it's modifying, even within a more complex word.

In building a word or a phrase with modifiers, the most important words are the closest to the subject being modified. As a general rule of thumb, positive and neutral/factual modifiers come before the subject, while negative modifiers come after the subject. As a further guideline, the most important modifiers are factual ones (and this includes titles, such as kidunen), followed by modifiers that indicate relationship to or with the subject, followed by subjective modifiers (such as zy [wise] or rhasaja [quiet-spoken]). Out of factual or objective modifiers, titles/ranks are the most important, followed by gender (if mentioned), then a ha [plural] or sy [singular] modifier, then zi [specifically this one] if needed, then any verifiable physical descriptors (such as gyni [physically strong] or lyni [long in the body]). This would produce a description like lyni zisy jekidunen [tall this-one male alpha; this tall alpha male]. Relationship modifiers are often given nearly as much weight as objective modifiers; those modifiers that indicate a direct relationship between speaker and subject are the most important, followed by modifiers that indicate the relationship between spoken-to and subject, then spoken-about and subject, then generalized terms like dhehafko [beloved]. This pattern of most-important-modifiers-are-closest-to-the-subject continues when looking at negatives. Negatives are purely subjective; factual negatives are considered neutral and come before the subject. To give an extensive example: dhehafko ja-y lyni jekidunen shihuri [beloved my tall male alpha fear-feeling; my tall, beloved, cowardly alpha male]. Relationship modifiers like ja-y [relating to self; my] usually replace zisy [this one] or ziha [these ones] unless there are no other descriptors to distinguish one from another; the speaker probably only has one beloved, cowardly alpha male. (Note: ja-y is often seen as jy.) To contrast: ja-y ziha shunen [my these-ones siblings] can be used when one is pointing out a brother and sister apart from a group of four or five littermates. Zisy and ziha are often used to refer back to a subject previously mentioned in a conversation, but are also used in combination with body language to point out specific subjects.

There's a special class of modifiers that indicates relationship between the speaker and the object.

There is a special class of modifiers that indicate relationship - between speaker and spoken-to, between spoken-to and spoken-about, or between speaker and spoken-about. (They do go under the heading of pronoun bridges, but they can modify the simple pronouns of jiri and nen as well as lonjiri/jirilon, lonnen/nenlon, and jirilonnen/nenlonjiri.) These pronouns set between factual modifiers (plural, gender) and subjective modifiers ([peaceful], [brave]) right where modifiers like [beloved] go, because these modifiers indicate others' regard for the pronoun. Impassive/factual modifiers include hohziru [higher in rank or skill], nashe [equal in skill or rank; colleague, peer], synasa [lower in rank or skill]; jelora ["new age"; younger], enulora ["old age"; older], relora ["same age"]; oku [sibling], sajhoku [blood-sibling], na [parent], naoku [parent's sibling], nana [parent's parent], jele [mate], ajele [consort, potential mate], fas [offspring], naokufas [cousin], fasfas [grandchildren]. More emotional modifiers include kifula [mind; one whom the speaker likes], otoni [heart; one whom the speaker loves], dehso [tooth; one whom the speaker will protect], zahtih [paw/foot; one whom the speaker will accompany, usually on a hunt], isenu [hand; one with whom the speaker works, trains, crafts, or spars], tufa [jaws; one whom the speaker will claim as its own]. For example: miro zahtih jho Hihtona. [Brave packmate Hihtona with whom I travel/hunt.] (Jho, [packmate], is considered a title, not a modifier. It's not necessary to say all the time, though, unlike kikeh and himore.) A more complicated example would be thus: isihjali dehso jirilonnen. [(I) yell (at/to) you-and-them whom I will protect.] Relationship modifiers not only help distinguish groups apart (jelora jho [younger packmates], isenu oku [sibling with whom I train]), but also convey emotional significance openly. Calling someone otoni within hearing of others lets the others know that you love this person; calling someone tufa within hearing lets others know that you have claimed this person and an affront to them is an affront to you. A flat statement of hes nen epari sajhoku [he is (my) blood-sibling] also can serve to eliminate any doubt. Da nen epari otoni jele. [She is (my) heart-mate / loved mate.] Otherwise, you'd be referring to otoni da nen or jele da nen - [loved woman] or [loved female mate].

Sentence Structure

In general, Uhjayi uses the SVO (subject-verb-object) pattern for its sentence structure. Kidunen Jekaya duri ha inlanlu [alpha Jekaya leads wolves]. More complex versions include subject-verb-indirectobject-directobject, with the two objects bridged by a prepositional modifier. Compare the following two examples. Kidunen Jekaya sajari Zihasi. [Alpha Jekaya speaks (to/with) Zihasi.] Kidunen Jekaya sajari ti Sachi jhalo Zihasi [alpha Jekaya speaks about Sachi to/with Zihasi]. Jhalo [to/with/involving] is a common bridge used between indirect and direct objects. Subclauses (phrases that would require [whom] in English) are used with zisy or ziha to reference the re-occurring subject.

In general, Uhjayi uses the subject-verb-object pattern for its sentence structure. For example: yafa kikeh Dakaya isihjali kikeh Jekona ehkinu. [Beloved alpha Dakaya yells (at/to) rival alpha Jekona.] A more complex sentence would read like this: Yafa kikeh Dakaya isihjali kikeh Jekona ehkinu erari ehpuya. [Beloved alpha Dakaya yells (at/to) rival alpha Jekona (who) deserves shame.] Subclauses (things that would require [whom] instead of [who] in English) are different. [Alpha Dakaya yells (at/to) rival Jekona whom wolves hate] would be kikeh Dakaya isihjali Jekona ehkinu / inlanlu rososa kehst, more directly translated as [alpha Dakaya yells (at/to) rival Jekona; wolves hate that one]. If you want to get more complicated with a subclause in the middle of the sentence, you can. Kikeh Dakaya isihjali Jekona ehkinu / inlanlu rososa kehst syha kikeh Dakaya. [Alpha Dakaya yells (at/to) rival Jekona, whom wolves hate, who insults alpha Dakaya.] Kehst [that one] becomes the bridge between [wolves hate that one] and [that one insults alpha Dakaya]. More on kehst in a bit. As for the / in the middle of that last example, consider it a very crude semicolon; written Uhjayi doesn't use punctuation except for a vertical line when going from object to subject without a linebreak (see script for more on that).

For the most part, structure stays fairly basic; there is no shifting of phrases about, like in English with [I walk alone] and [alone, I walk] and [I, alone, walk]. (There would, however, be a difference in [I walk alone] and [lonely-me walks]. You can either describe the verb with [alone] or the subject with [lonely].) With indirect objects, it becomes subject-verb-indirectobject-directobject, and the two objects are bridged by rojh. Yafa kikeh Dakaya ikuru dyla rojh miro jho Hihtona. [Beloved alpha Dakaya gives compliment to brave packmate Hihtona.] Rojh is an all-purpose word that has no direct translation or emotional connotation - it can be used to describe giving a gift, an insult, an injury, etc. It can also describe an action taken against someone, as well as for them. More about rojh later, with spatial prepositions.

Verbs: Modified, Not Conjugated - finished

Like nouns and pronouns, verbs receive modifiers to affect their meanings; they are not directly conjugated. Verbs can be identified by the common -ri ending, which is actually a modifier in and of itself, transforming a concept or a noun into an action. (Note: Words ending in -uri [feels ___] can be either descriptors or verbs. For example, shihuri is literally translated as [feels fear] but is often used to mean [cowardly] and thus being a descriptor, not a verb.) Verb tense is separate from the verb itself and comes directly in front of the verb; if there is no tense, the verb is considered to be present tense. So, sajari would be [communicates; speaks] rather than [to communicate; to speak]; a lack of subject in combination with a lack of tense turns it into [to communicate] and lets it function as a noun: sajari luhsavika o chakeh [to communicate for the purpose of understanding is a good idea].

There are three main tenses in Uhjayi - past, present, and future. As discussed, there is no term for present tense; a lack of tense indicator suffices to convey present tense. Past tense is indicated by dhehseh [past time] and future tense by tuhseh [future time]; some dialects only use dheh [past] and tuh [future] as tenses. These tense indicators become modified if the speaker wishes to convey that an action started in the past and continues in the present, that an action is occurring in the present and will continue into the future, or if an action began in the past and will continue into the future (but is not endless or permanent). Kidunen Jekaya jhydheh sajari [alpha Jekaya has been speaking and continues to do so]. Kidunen Jekaya jhytuh sajari [alpha Jekaya is speaking and will continue to do so]. Kidunen Jekaya jhyseh sajari [alpha Jekaya has been speaking, is speaking now, and will continue to do so]. Tenses always come directly before the verb.

Pronouns and You - finished

There are the typical three levels of pronouns - speaker [I/me], spoken-to [you], and spoken-about [he/she/it/they]. There is no [I] as a pronoun; when speaking directly to someone, you simply don't give the verb a subject and you are inferred to be the subject. (Note: In English, saying [do this] is often an imperative, rather than a statement of [I do this]; in Uhjayi, imperatives and commands are always given with the [you] pronoun, essentially like [you do this].) Tuhseh deri fyha sakhuhka. [(I) will require lots of food.] However, yka [me] is used when the speaker becomes the object, rather than the subject, of a sentence. Kidunen Jekaya sajari yka. [Alpha Jekaya speaks to/with me.] (Note: Emphasis can be placed on yka with zi, forming zi-yka [me myself].) Sa-y is singular [you], and hasa-y is plural [you]. (Sa-y and hasa-y are often seen as sy and hasy.) Kidunen Jekaya tuh sajari hasa-y. [Alpha Jekary will speak (with) all of you.]

Third person is where it gets interesting. Nen [person] acts as a singular third-person genderfree pronoun; nen indicates a person, not an object, but can be used to indicate other living things to which are attributed person-like characteristics, like animals or spirits. Like the rest, nen is pluralized with ha to become hanen [they], and nen can be modified to indicate gender with da [feminine] or je [masculine]. Danen is both [she] and [woman]; jenen is both [he] and [man]. Gender is rarely used if the gender has no bearing on the conversation/situation; talking about a potential consort would see a gender modifier used, but talking about a potential hunting partner would not. There is also a third gender modifier, jekuda [neutral between male and female], that is used to indicate an unknown or atypical gender, such as a man acting feminine or vice versa; jekuda is most often used in reference to non-tahori whose gender is often difficult to determine by scent. It can also be used when the speaker is presenting itself as open to being informed about the gender of the subject/object in question, in which cases it's often said as dijekuda.

There are also pronoun combinations in Uhjayi. Losa-y (or losy) is the speaker with the spoken-to, lonen is the speaker and the spoken-about, sa-ylonen (or sylonen) is the spoken-to and spoken-about, and losa-ylonen (or losylonen) is speaker with spoken-to with spoken-about, all of which are pluralizable with ha. (Note: Even though these combinations imply more than one person, ha is not used unless there is more than one person in either group - such as combining the self with hasa-y or sa-y with hanen.) Additionally, the order of the pronouns when combined depends on importance/rank of the people involved. A kidunen [alpha] would say losa-y [me-with-you] when speaking to his tykidunen [beta], but a subordinate inlanlu would say sa-ylo [you-with-me] when speaking to her kidunen. Keep in mind that lo is the bridge between pronouns, and the [I] is implied in front of losa-y and lonen. Just like in lists, the most important thing comes first.

Possessive pronouns are simplified modifications of the general pronouns above. Jy is [my]; jydhaka is [mine] when referring to an object; jynen is used to refer to a person, such as when saying sy ori jynen [you're mine]. (Please note that jydhaka and jynen, as well as their equivalents in non-first-person, are nouns. Jy is a relationship modifier indicated relation to self.) Jasy is [your]; jasydhaka is [yours] when referring to an object; jasynen is used to refer to a person, such as when saying ma-ori jasynen [I choose to be yours]. Jazinen is [its]; jazinen dhaka is [its] when referring to an object; jazineninen is [its] when referring to a person. (Note: Second and third person possessive pronouns can be pluralized with ha, as usual, and third person possessives can be modified with je- or da- to indicate gender where necessary. All of the following are also pluralizable, but gender modifiers are rarely used.) Jalosy or jasylo is [our] (speaker with spoken-to); jalosy/jasylo dhaka is [ours] when referring to an object; jalosynen or jasylonen is [ours] when referring to a person. Jalonen or janenlo is [our] (speaker with spoken-about); jalonen/janenlo dhaka is [ours] when referring to an object; jaloneninen or janenlonen is [ours] when referring to a person. Jasylonen or janenlosy is [your] (spoken-to and spoken-about); jasylonen/janenlosy dhaka is [yours] when referring to an object; jasyloneninen or janenlosynen is [yours] when referring to a person. Lastly, jalosylonen or jalonenlosy or jasylolonen or jasylonenlo or janenlolosy or janenlosylo is [our] (speaker with spoken-to with spoken-about); jalosylonen/etc dhaka is [ours] when referring to an object; jalosyloneninen/etc* is [ours] when referring to a person. (*Use [our] and tack on -nen to the end, unless the form of jalosylonen ends in -nen, in which case add -inen instead.) (Note: Like actual pronouns, the order of combination possessives, such as jalosy/jasylo, is determined by rank of those included in the word. See the example at the end of the last paragraph.) (Still need to add words in this paragraph to the vocab list.)

Conjunctions, Pluralization, and Lists - finished

In a list, the most important items are mentioned first and the least important items come last. Inclusive conjunctions are formed with either lo [and/with] or li [parallel to/along with]. Lo is used when the subjects being grouped are of differing importance; li is used when they are of similar or equal importance. Compare: jekidunen li dakidunen [alpha male and alpha female]; kidunen lo tykidunen [alpha and beta]; kidunen lo datykidunen li jetykidunen lo sakhinen [alpha and beta female and beta male and guard]. When bridged with li, order is no longer important between the two words that li links together; when joined by lo, the most important must come first.

Ny [or] is the exclusive conjunction of choice. It does not differentiate between importance of subjects; it can bridge single subjects or groups of subjects, the groups being linked by lo or li. Jyny is used to indicate [nor].

Like most other parts of Uhjayi, pluralization takes the form of a modifier. Ha indicates multiple of something and is typically used as a generic pluralizer: ha nen / hanen are [people] and ha mika or hamika are [journeys]. More specific quantities can be indicated via tyha [few/little], kuha [several/some], diha [an unknown number of], noha [many/plenty], and fyha [lots/much]. Ha and its derivatives may or may not be considered a part of the word in question, as seen with ha nen versus hanen [people]; generally, more commonly-used words have ha as part of the plural form, whereas less common words keep ha separate.

Prepositions and Articles - finished

There are no articles such as [a] and [the] in Uhjayi. When a speaker wishes to emphasize that the subject or object of conversation is the same one mentioned earlier, it uses zisy [this one] or ziha [those ones] in front of the subject/object to clarify. Zihasi dheh sajuri gihka luhmuri. Kidunen Jekaya khari zisy gihka. [Zihasi fixed (a) weapon. Alpha Jekaya uses that weapon.] (Note: When using zisy or ziha, longer phrases such as gihka luhmuri [tool used to harm; weapon] are often shortened to the base noun, like gihka [tool], because zisy/ziha is already referenced the aforementioned full phrase.)

Jhalo is the most widely-used abstract preposition in Uhjayi; it indicates a direct involvement of the subject and is also used as a rough translation of [about]. Jhalo is a bridge between verb and indirect object or direct and indirect objects. Compare: Kidunen Jekaya sajari Zihasi. [Alpha Jekaya speaks (to/with) Zihasi.] Kidunen Jekaya sajari jhalo Zihasi. [Alpha Jekaya speaks about Zihasi.] Jhalo's negative partner is duhlo [against], which is also a bridge instead of a modifier. Kidunen Jekaya sajari duhlo Zihasi. [Alpha Jekaya speaks against Zihasi.]

Spatial preposition roots become modifiers to the verb, such as throwing a spear forward, and to the noun, such as the deer to the left. Spatial prepositions include chi [among/between], cho [in front of], do [backward], feh [towards], fu [behind], ga [to the right], he [above], hih [away from], jhih [facing towards], muh [facing to the right], my [forward], neh [across], nuh [facing to the left], ro [distant/far], sih [close/near], so [inside of], sha [outside of], sho [center/middle], tu [to the left], thih [beyond/past], vu [below/beneath], vuh [facing away from], and yu [through]. These modifiers are considered neutral/factual modifiers and thus are placed very close to the root word they're modifying. For example, Zihasi tuh romuhtahi-ehri gihka luhmuri. [Zihasi will throw far to the right (a) weapon.] Distance [near/far] generally comes before direction [right/left/forward], hence romuhtahi-ehri instead of muhrotahi-ehri.

Questions and Answers, Negative and Positive - finished

Questions are formed by the addition of root di at the beginning of a sentence to indicate the uncertainty of the statement. Di kidunen Jekaya duri noha inlanlu? [Alpha Jekaya leads many wolves?] Modifiers can be applied to di to indicate a prediction for the answer - chadi if the answer is thought to be a positive/affirmative, and zodi if the answer is thought to be a negative/negation. Chadi kidunen Jekaya duri noha inlanlu? [Alpha Jekaya leads many wolves, right?] Zodi kidunen Jekaya duri noha inlanlu? [Alpha Jekaya doesn't lead many wolves, does he?] The question is phrased as a normal sentence; there's no switching of subjects and objects as in [you said what?] to [what did you say?] in English. Query words like di-ika [what/which] (often seen as dika), dinen [who], diseh [when], dihi [where], disakeh [how], and dila [why] take the place of the nouns that would otherwise fill in the blanks. For example: Di danen tuhseh sarusajakarari diseh? [She will sing when?] Danen sihtuh tuhseh sarusajakarari. [She soon will sing.] Note that sihtuh [soon] modifies the verb and so comes before tuhseh sarusajakarari [will sing].

Cha [positive] and zo [negative] are also how you affirm or negate a sentence; either one is placed as a modifier to the verb in a place of high importance, as close to the verb as it can get without coming between the verb and any tense indicators. In many cases, particularly with well-used phrases and zo, the modifier becomes part of the verb in the present tense. Kidunen Jekaya duri noha inlanlu. [Alpha Jekaya leads many wolves.] Kidunen Jekaya zoduri fyha inlanlu. [Alpha Jekaya doesn't lead many wolves.] Kidunen Jekaya tuh nari nosa-ika inlanlu. [Alpha Jekaya will bring together more wolves.] Kidunen Jekaya zo tuh nari kosa-ika inlanlu luh jhyseri. [Alpha Jekaya will not bring together enough wolves in order to survive.] Cha is most often used to respond with a positive/affirmative answer to a question that expected a negative reply. Zodi kidunen Jekaya duri noha inlanlu? [Alpha Jekaya doesn't lead many wolves, does he?] Kidunen Jekaya cha duri noha inlanlu. [Actually, alpha Jekaya does lead many wolves.] It serves to place emphasis on the verb and affirm it.

Note that, when asking a question, di is modified with cha or zo, but when answering or making a statement, cha or zo modifies the verb. There's no need to use double negatives or double positives in a question; only di needs modified, not both di and the verb.

Vocabulary Used In Syntax Samples

cha - positive
chadi - positive uncertain/unknown (begins a question that expects a positive/affirmative answer)
chakome - beautiful
chakeh - positive concept; good idea
chi - among/between
cho - in front of
danen - woman/she
deri - to need, to require
dhaka - thing, object
dhehafko - beloved (adj; orig: dhe-hafyko)
dhehafkonen - beloved person (orig: dhe-hafykoneni)
dhehseh - past tense
di - uncertain/unknown (begins a question sentence)
diha - an unknown number of
dihi - where?
dijekuda - unknown gender (used as a pronoun)
di-ika - what/which? (occasionally seen as dika)
dila - why?
dinen - who?
disakeh - how?
diseh - when?
do - backward
duhlo - against (jhalo's opposite)
duri - to lead (as in a pack)
gihka - tool
gihka luhmuri - weapon
gyni - physically strong
feh - towards
fu - behind
fychakonen - person I love
fychakori sy - I love you
fyha - lots
ga - to the right
ha - plural
hanen - people
hasa-y - you (plural pronoun; occasionally seen as hasy)
he - above
hih - away from
ja-y - my (occasionally seen as jay or jy)
jekuda - gender-neutral pronoun
jenen - man/he
jhalo - to/with (directly involving; typically bridges indirect and direct objects)
jhih - facing towards
jhydheh - present perfect tense (started in the past, continues into the present)
jhyseh - present perfect progressive tense (started in the past, continues through the present into the future)
jhyseri - to survive, to live
jhytuh - future perfect tense (started in the present, continues and finishes in the future)
jychatonen - person who is mine (orig: ja-ychatoneni)
jynen - mine (orig: ja-yneni)
jyny - nor
khari - to use, to utilize, to wield
kosa-ika - enough, a sufficient/satisfactory/pleasing number of (occasionally seen as kosika)
kuha - some
li - parallel to/along with (conjunction of equals)
lo - and/with (conjunction of inequals)
lonen - speaker and spoken-about (pronoun)
lonensa-y - speaker, spoken-about, and spoken-to (pronoun; occasionally seen as lonensy)
losa-y - speaker and spoken-to (pronoun; occasionally seen as losy)
losa-ylonen - speaker, spoken-to, and spoken-about (pronoun; occasionally seen as losylonen)
luh - in order to, for the purpose of
lyni - long in the body; tall
machatori sy - I choose to keep you (form of I love you)
mika - journey
muh - facing to the right
nari - to bring together, to unite
nen - person/it (genderfree pronoun)
nenlo - spoken-about and speaker (pronoun)
nenlolosa-y - spoken-about, peaker, and spoken-to (pronoun; occasionally seen as nenlolosy)
nenlosa-y - spoken-about and spoken-to (pronoun; occasionally seen as nenlosy)
nenlosa-ylo - spoken-about, spoken-to, and speaker (pronoun; occasionally seen as nenlosylo)
noha - many
nosa-ika - more (occasionally seen as nosika)
nuh - facing to the left
ny - or (exclusive conjunction)
rhasaja - quiet-spoken
ro - distant/far
sajaka - communication
sajari - to communicate
sajuri - to fix, to mend, to repair
sakhuhka - food
sarusajakarari - to sing
sashunen - mate
sasukokanen - giver of joy
savika - comprehension, understanding
sa-y - you (singular pronoun; occasionally seen as sy)
sa-ylo - spoken-to and speaker (pronoun; occasionally seen as sylo)
sa-ylolonen - spoken-to, speaker, and spoken-about (pronoun; occasionally seen as sylolonen)
sa-ylonen - spoken-to and spoken-about (pronoun; occasionally seen as sylonen)
sa-ylonenlo - spoken-to, spoken-about, and speaker (pronoun; occasionally seen as sylonenlo)
sha - outside of
shihuri - feeling fear; cowardly
sho - center/middle
shunen - sibling (orig: shuneni)
sih - close/near
sihdheh - recently (near past)
sihtuh - soon (near future)
so - inside of
sy ori jynen - you're mine (form of I love you)
sysareh chasa-u - lover (one who brings me physical pleasure)
tahi-ehri - to throw, to force to move
thih - beyond/past (spatially)
ti - about (indirectly involving)
tu - to the left
tuhseh - future tense
tyha - few
vu - below/beneath
vuh - facing away from
yka - me (pronoun)
yu - through (spatially)
ziha - those ones
zisy - this one
zi-yka - me myself (emphasis)
zo - negative
zodi - negative uncertain/unknown (begins a question that expects a negatory answer)
zy - wise


  • Is [TI] really necessary? It's [indirectly involving]; [JHA] is [directly involving].
  • Do we really need the set of four [facing X direction] roots? Couldn't we just have a concept root like [facing/aiming X moving]?
  • Should [Y] stop being [self]? It screws with things with all the damn hyphens and organic slur-shortening.
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